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Sunday, 28 February 2010

Nature Tourism in Zambia

A wonderful slide pack on the profile of tourists to Zambia. The survey is slightly dated (2005) but I doubt the position has changed in the last five years. Among the interesting statistics : 71% of visitors tourisng Zambia for the first time; 84% would visit Zambia again; average tourist package expenditure per person, excluding air fair - $1100 (47% going on hotels); and 54% of visitors see Victoria Falls.

Quick notes

Kagem's exceptional 'insofu' 6,225-carat rough emerald is another reminder of the glories of this forgotten / shadow industry.

Mo Ibrahim preaches shared sovereignity for small African countries, suggesting that "if Africa’s small and diverse nations do not come together, they will never integrate properly into the world economy, and so will not reap the benefits of our globalised world."

Newsweek reminds us that Africa is Becoming the New Asia driven not "by the sale of raw materials, like oil or diamonds, but by a burgeoning domestic market, the largest outside India and China".

As South Africa prepares for the 2010 A Bus System designed to run from Soweto, where a quarter of the city’s four million residents live, to Sandton, the region’s commercial and financial hub is opening forgotten rifts.

Its not all about the extraction of raw minerals, according to Reuters part of the Chinese neo-colonisation is involves a significant cultural exchange. Not sure where this puts a recent claim I heard that China may also be exporting "prisoners" to Zambia.

The concept of the South African developmental state, where the government plays a key role in the economy, is apparently being undermined by the poor performance of the parastatals which have reached an advanced state of crisis or on the verge of "a complete meltdown.

A new Transparency International's report looking at education systems in seven African countries has raised concerns over financial accountability in schools and a lack of interest among parents in how schools are run.

The Politics of Global Regulation (A Review)

The debate around global regulation has reached something of crescendo in the last year or so. While the financial crisis again demonstrated the integrated nature of the global economic system and the nations’ dependency on global players to coordinate meaningful action, the outcome of the Copenhagen summit showed the difficulty of delivering global outcomes that are favourable to all. It is therefore timely and welcome that Mattli and Woods have undertaken to edit The Politics of Global Regulation.

The editors bring together a range of experts to discuss the political nature of global regulation, centred on a conceptual framework that analyses how changes in global regulation occur and what drives them. The basic thrust of the framework is that global regulation is an outworking of global supply and demand forces for regulation. How these forces interact to reach equilibrium determines on whether the regulatory shift from the status quo benefits vested interests or achieves a wider public purpose.

The supply side is largely determined by the institutional context within which global regulation takes place. Where the institutions are more open, accessible and accountable, the system is less prone to regulatory capture. In contrast, where rules are far less open, transparent, or accountable we are likely to see more capture. However, open institutions on their own won’t deliver profound change. There must be significant and sustained demand for change, principally led by outside interest groups. The challenge is to understand how demand for regulation is generated and what is likely to lead to sustained change. Three factors are identified as critical in incentivising and enabling pro-change players to effect change: availability of information on the deficiencies and biases of the status quo e.g. disasters with the potential to act as “demonstration effects” that pushes outside players to react and seek change; presence of a viable common interest players that are able to reduce coordination costs especially where such costs are likely to be prohibitive; and, the ability of groups to forge new ideas that would persuade other players to support regulatory change.

With these ideas established the rest of the book effectively uses a wide variety of case studies to demonstrate how the framework helps fits with real world experience. The case studies are particularly helpful in illustrating how the framework differs from well established approach to global regulation e.g. the “realist view” that approaches regulation as principally driven by the dominant power.

Although the book is generally well researched, it could have benefited from additional refinements. In terms of substance, there’s an underlying presumption that outside driven change is always positive, which has led to minimal discussion of the “desirability of change” or discussions of where regulatory change can lead to worse outcomes. For example, corporate social responsibility (CSR), which has grown into a strong movement, is treated as largely positive. This contrasts with the experience of many other nations where CSR is creating perverse incentives, with many multinational firms using it as informal bribe to locals to prevent them from demanding reasonable taxes. It’s therefore not obvious that regulation of any kind pushed by outside groups would necessarily lead to superior outcomes. In many cases it might be undesirable. What is crucial is to understand what leads to positive or desirable outcomes, rather than merely any change. In terms of presentation, whilst the varieties of case studies presented are helpful in bringing the ideas to life, the discussion is often repetitive with little extension beyond the foundational framework. This has meant that where areas can be developed these are not fully discussed.

However, taken together the book represents a great contribution to understanding global regulation. Indeed, although written primarily from a global perspective the reflections will also benefit those interested in national regulation issues.

No Sleep for My Motherland! (Guest Blog)

At independence in 1964, Zam bia, as the World Bank once observed, was potentially the richest country in sub-Saharan Africa. Forty-four years later, however, it has become one of the poorest, with nearly 70% of its people wallowing in abject poverty.

But how could a country that is blessed with good weather, fertile soil, several perennial rivers running through it, abundant mineral endowments, and very peaceful and hard-working citizens find itself in such a predicament?

Well, we have an outdated education policy that is designed to cast nearly half of those who enroll in Grades 7 and 9 onto the streets every year. We have a healthcare system that is hardly accessible to the majority of citizens. We have so many of our fellow citizens who have no access to clean water and electricity. We have a critical shortage of decent public housing nationwide. Public infrastructure and services are deficient. Civil servants are not adequately compensated for their services. And a lot of civil service retirees cannot get their hard-earned benefits.

Further, crime, corruption and unemployment are widespread. Taxes and interest rates are extremely high. Single-source government procurements, the appointment of alleged perpetrators of corrupt practices to key government positions, and the sacking of officers who attempt to pursue or expose key government officials allegedly involved in scandals have become a normal practice. And selective prosecution of alleged offenders and the perpetration of violence and threats of violence against innocent citizens have become acceptable political campaign tools.

Besides, the National Constitutional Conference is recommending articles and clauses that are designed to exclude certain individuals from contesting the Republican presidency, and those which are designed to suit the needs and interests of the ruling political party. And rehearsed warnings that we should not experiment with leadership have started getting louder—somewhat suggesting to us that the deadwoods among our current crop of government leaders hold the key to Zambia’s future! Soon, we will be bombarded by rehearsed calls that the Republican president should be given more time to complete his projects and programs beyond 2011—projects and programs which include touring the world, and “drive-through” deliberations with chiefs designed to secure votes.

The seriousness of socio-economic woes facing my Motherland is heart-rending. Unfortunately, the Republican president and the Republican vice president are oblivious to the problems facing the common people. They seem to be more interested in lining up their own pockets, and the pockets of their sympathizers. Winning elections to them seems to be an end in itself. And they will continue to abuse the power they wield to win elections—including the divide-and-rule strategy once used by the colonial government, and the use of intelligence briefings to tell the nation upon landing at airports that they know what is happening in opposition political parties.

Does any individual or political party have the key to lock the door to socio-economic decay and backwardness, and unlock the door to greater opportunities and a higher quality of life for all Zambians in Central Province, Copperbelt Province, Eastern Province, Luapula Province, Lusaka Province, Northern Province, North-Western Province, Southern Province, and Western Province?

No sleep for my Motherland!

Henry Kyambalesa (Guest Blogger)

Saturday, 27 February 2010

Media Self Regulation

The media recently agreed to establish an all-inclusive Zambia Media Council (ZAMEC) by May 3, 2010. ZAMEC will be voluntary, non statutory, self regulatory body, which is designed to dissuaded Government from imposing draconian measures against the media. The new body is meant to be a product of international "best practice" on self regulation. Below is the draft ZAMEC Code of Ethics - under discussion :
ZAMEC Code of Ethics

The Auditor General's Report for 2008

Most pleased again to lay our hands on the heavily trailed Auditor General's report on the accounts for the financial year ended 31st December 2008 (last year's report here). As always, well worth the read, and huge thanks to a friend who tracked the soft copy for our benefit.
Report of the Auditor General on Accounts for 2008

Patent and Companies Bills, 2010

A number of new commerce and trade bills were present last week. The main Bill was the Patents and Companies Registration Agency Bill, 2010. The Bill establishes the Patents and Companies Registration Agency (PACRA) and defines it associated functions. It also transfers from the Government to PACRA, the functions and the powers of the offices of the Registrar of Companies, Registrar of Registered Business Names, Registrar of Patents, Registrar of Trade Marks and Registrar of Registered Designs. I have yet to read this Bill as its not available online yet. This post will be updated when it is available. 

With that Bill comes associated amendments to other Acts to bring them in line with PACRA:

The Patents (Amendment) Bill, 2010 amends the Patents Act so as to provide for the registration of patents by the PACRA.

The Trade Marks (Amendment) Bill, 2010 amends the Trade Marks Act so as to provide for the registration of trade marks by the PACRA.

The Registered Designs (Amendment) Bill, 2010 amends the Registered Designs Act so as to provide for the registration of designs by the PACRA.

The Companies (Certificates Validation) (Amendment) Bill, 2010 amends the Companies (Certificates Validation) Act so as to redefine the Office of the Registrar.

The Companies (Amendment) Bill, 2010 amends the Companies Act so as to repeal : (a) the provisions relating to the Office of the Registrar of Companies; and, (b)repeal the provisions relating to the requirements for minimum capital for a public or private company before it can operate.

All the amendment Bills are fairly short (3 pages max). The Bills have been referred to the Committee on Economic Affairs and Labour. The Committee is required to submit its report on the Bill to the House on Wednesday, 17th March, 2010. Anyone who wishes to make submissions or amendments to the Bill are free to do so within the programme of work of the Committee.

If in doubt please email The Clerk of the National Assembly [Email : clerk@parliament.gov.zm ]. I can assure you that he does read and respond to emails. If that fails, get in touch with me and I will find someone you can contact.

Friday, 26 February 2010

Book Reading Goal : Week 4

A trip to Paris early in the week provided a wonderful opportunity to complete the latest instalment from Wendy Alec's Chronicles of Brothers series that I begun two years. I am not really a fictional reader per se, but I have found myself engrossed in the story. The plot is basically adapted from the Bible but with very vivid imagination.

The book : Son of Perdition: The Chronicles of Brothers (Chronicles of Brothers 3), by Wendy Alec.  450 pages of riveting stuff! I  would say that out of the three novels (the other two are : Fall of Lucifer and First Judgement) this was the most captivating and best written. The only downside is that I had expected this to be final book, so imagine my horror when I got to page 300 and begun thinking...."we got a long way before the end of days.....".  It quickly dawned that there was another book coming...in 2011.

Favourite Quote : "The robes are behind the suits".

Book Reading Goal Review
Books Read So Far : 6 books
Remaining Books to Achieve Target : 44 books
Weeks Remaining to Achieve Annual Target : 44 weeks

Thursday, 25 February 2010

The ZDA (Amendment) Bill 2010

Extremely thankful to the wonderful people at the National Assembly who responded to our query and have now made available part of the 2010 bills, with more on the way (including some exciting ones)! I was getting worried that after initiating A Million Words, we were going to be stuck on zero!

We kick off with a 7 page amendment - The Zambia Development Agency (Amendment) Bill 2010. The Bill amends the the Zambia Development Agency Act, 2006, by revising two key areas. There changes relating to revision of licensing restrictions. We also have a  new section that provides immunity from execution of judgments against ZDA assets.

Where any judgment order is obtained against the Agency, no execution, attachment or process of any nature, 10 shall be issued against the Agency or against any property of the Agency, but the Agency shall cause to be paid out of its revenues such amount as may, by the judgment order, be awarded against the Agency to the person entitled to such amount.
The idea is to limit the exposure to the ZDA against its poor judgements and by corollary limit how much individuals can recover. Depending on your view this is either good for tax payers (since it reduces the risk of bailing out ZDA) or bad for them (if it leads to less responsible decisions by ZDA. An important amendment in the world of rapidly expanding role for ZDA e.g. in relation to privatisation and other financial activities.   

A failure of manage...

Diana Games on political ineptitude and the failure of  resource rich nations like Zambia to manage the mineral wealth. No new ideas but always good to reminded that all of our problems are largely our own making.

Zambia and the gap between rhetoric and reality in Africa, Diana Games, Business Day, Commentary :

In 2008, after months of delays, the Zambian government finally gave in to public pressure to capture a greater share of profits from the commodity boom by introducing a windfall tax on minerals, raising mining royalties and hiking corporate taxes.

The measures, which came into effect in the April 2008 national budget, raised the effective tax rate from about 30% to 47%. The move raised a howl of protest from mining companies, which said it violated investment agreements with the government.

Months later, the global economic crisis kicked in, commodity prices plunged and Zambia’s foreign currency revenues started drying up as investors fled, expansion plans were put on hold and exports dropped.

The windfall revenues raised were used mostly to prop up a devaluing local currency, hard hit by these whirlwind events.

A year after introducing them, the government, panicked by the rapid decline of exports and investment, scrapped most of these taxes and even introduced new measures to relieve the mines’ high operating costs. Zambia was left not only financially worse off after the dust of the global crisis settled, breaking agreements with foreign miners had also tarnished its reputation as an attractive investment destination.

With the increase in copper prices during last year , pressure is mounting again for the mining tax issue to be revisited. The government is resisting — but 2011 is an election year and could mean knee-jerk policy reactions.

The Zambian story reflects some of things that are wrong with resource- rich countries in Africa generally . One is the issue of investment agreements. Many of Zambia’s mining contracts were negotiated from a low base after the nationalisation of the mines destroyed the mining sector and the government sought investors to take over its poorly functioning assets at a time of low prices. Investors negotiated good deals for themselves and no accommodation was made for price swings.

Zambia also failed to use the revenues it did generate during five years of high commodity prices to diversify the rest of the economy sufficiently to accommodate any major downturn in its key revenue-generating sector.

The global financial crisis is not the main reason for the problems that they are experiencing.

The primary cause of their woes is long-term structural weaknesses in economic policy and management, a situation compounded in many resource-rich countries by an inability to use windfalls for development — or a reluctance to do so. This makes them unable to withstand even the smallest of economic shocks.

The emotional debate about resources and investment so beloved by politicians usually centres on the need for Africans to own Africa’s resources. Yet, despite the noble rhetoric, “the people” hardly get a look in even where resource wealth is captured.

In most countries, the state insists on having a stake in mining enterprises and oil exploration and production through joint ventures with operators. In some cases, a majority stake for the state is mandatory.

So what happens to all that money? Mostly, it seems to disappear down any number of black holes, including bloated personal bank accounts, recurrent funding gaps, official pet projects, debt payments and innumerable other unproductive pursuits. Party coffers are a favourite, especially as in many countries, including ours, the line between party and state is distinctly blurred.

State officials in countries such as Angola, Africa’s biggest oil producer, bemoaned the fact that severe budget cuts on the back of sharply reduced growth last year would curtail their plans to address poverty . Such statements are sheer political expedience.

Africa’s resource-rich countries continue to sit at the bottom of human development indicators, with little by way of social investment during the boom times preceding the crisis.

In any case, poverty reduction is usually left to the donors and nongovernmental organisations to sort out.

It may be convenient for African politicians that the global crisis was not of Africa’s making. But that does not remove the fact that the severe contraction of western economies served not just to highlight how badly prepared countries are for external shocks, it showed how little of Africa’s wealth is being harvested for and invested in the continent’s future.

Wednesday, 24 February 2010

Linking Zambia (ZACCI)

The Zambia Association of Chambers of Commerce and Industry (ZACCI) have a new website. Regularly updated with some good links.

Reinforcing the ZAMTEL monopoly?

Russell Southwood argues that the Government has deliberately strengthened ZAMTEL's monopoly to make it attractive to suitors and this may have negative for internet development in the long term. 

Government Reinforces Zamtel Monopoly as Country Heads for Competition, Russell Southwood, The Balancing Act, Commentary :
London — In the run-up to the privatisation of Zamtel, the Zambian Government is proposing to add a significant proportion of the fibre assets from the state-owned power utility Zesco. This move will reinforce the de facto monopoly of Zamtel in terms of infrastructure ahead the more competitive landscape envisaged in the new ICT Act passed in December last year.

This adding of other fibre assets to the incumbent's dowry also occurred in Ghana when Vodafone bought Ghana Telecom. Russell Southwood looks at how these kinds of transfers can either hinder or help competition in the market.

The Zambian Development Agency is currently undertaking the sale of state-owned incumbent Zamtel. The company has become loss making, is hugely over-staffed and has the smallest cellular operation in a country with only three operators. Huawei has been building the company a fibre backbone but it is far from complete: indeed, there are still so many gaps that it would not be fair to describe it as a national network.

By contrast, the power utility, Zesco had laid an effective fibre network across the economically active central part of the country from Lumwana/Solwezi in the north to Sesheke in the south, connecting the copperbelt to Lusaka and on to the borders of neighbouring Botswana and Namibia. It was licensed by the regulator (then CAZ, now ZICTA) as a carriers' carrier.

So whilst Zamtel was protecting its gateway monopoly and charging high prices for satellite connectivity, PCCW joined forces with Zesco and others and created an international fibre route out to South Africa via Namibia and South Africa. It wasn't cheap but it was a whole lot cheaper than the Zamtel satellite service and it began to undercut Zamtel's previously protected international revenues. Interestingly, the Zesco portion of this route was the cheapest and the Telkom South Africa portion the most expensive.

In December 2008, the Zambian Ministry of Communications decided to sell a 75% stake in the company. A year later in December 2009 a shortlist of bidders was announced by the Zambian Development Agency. More or less at the same time, the Government decided that 7 of the 12 fibre pairs on Zesco's network would be taken away from it and given to Zamtel. This is clearly an attempt to fatten the goose before any sale price is agreed. That much is understandable but what it does is entrench the near de-facto monopoly on national fibre infrastructure of the eventual buyer.

Of the 12 fibre pairs Zesco has, it uses 2 to manage its power network, 7 will go to Zamtel, MTN has use of 1 pair, leaving 2 not yet used. Both Zain and MTN are laying metro fibre in the larger cities and are talking of building national fibre backbones. Realtime Technologies has a joint venture with the country's second power utility CEC and has an extensive fibre network in the country, particularly the Copperbelt. So it now goes from being a competitive infrastructure play with Zesco to finding itself back in the arms of Zamtel for international infrastructure.

Furthermore, Zambian ISPs oppose the move. As one told us:"All the ISPs don't want this to happen. We have a good relationship with Zesco and we put a lot of capacity through their link. If it happens, I'll have to lay fibre routes and that's not my business. We're looking at VoIP offerings because the current prices of international calling are still US$1.10-1.50 a minute."

On 23rd December 2009, the government through the Zambia Development Agency (ZDA) announced that the shortlist of bidders. These are: India's Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd, Angola's Unitel and Libya's LAP Green Networks. Unitel is the only private mobile operator in the Angolan market and has the biggest market share. It also has the distinction of having a minority shareholding by the President's daughter who nowadays get described in the press as a "businesswomen and entrepreneur". LAP Green Networks owns former incumbents in Rwanda and Uganda. After the announcement, Russia's Altimo was added as a fourth successful bidder. Altimo has investments outside Africa in Beeline, Megafon, Kyivstar and Turkcell. It issued a paper in November last year saying Africa was becoming the key investment target as other markets were saturated.

A similar situation is happening in Tanzania although lack of information from the Government makes it much harder to gauge how it might finally turn out. Incumbent TTCL has been managed up till now by Saskatel who have not managed to find a strategic investor. The Government have taken on a Chinese loan to have Huawei build a national fibre backbone. Tanzania has several parastatals who have fibre assets, most notably power utility TANESCO. It has put the use of these assets out to tender on two occasions and both occasions the tender has not been concluded. In short, the Tanzanian Government has failed to chart a strategy for creating a national backbone in sharp contrast to its Kenyan neighbour.

The national backbone seems to be underway: people have seen Chinese workers digging trenches alongside the roads and the Government is promising the northern loop will be available by November 2010. However, it is not clear when it will actually be available for use. The plan appears to be that the Government will own the fibre infrastructure and that it will be operated by incumbent TTCL through a separate subsidiary.

TTCL has not much of a track record for the successful operation of national fibre backbone infrastructure. No final pricing has yet been discussed but the Ministry has set up a Committee of operators to look at interconnection issues. However, rumours are circulating that Vodacom has been given the go-ahead for a fibre route between Arusha and Namanga and a consortium of Zain, Tigo, Simbanet and Zamtel have been discussing fibre infrastructure.

In the meantime, cheap international bandwidth has arrived in the country but it's impossible to get it anywhere because the glacial pace at which the Tanzanian Government moves. It has neither come up with a timely, funded national fibre strategy, nor allowed the private sector to do the job. And all this is happening in one of the most competitive telecoms markets on the continent.

As one local operator told us:"Taking the international bandwidth from Dar to elsewhere is an issue. There is a lot of (national) fibre in the country but it's a mess. The Government wants to give (the national backbone they are building) to TTCL but it will be a competitor to other providers. There are a lot of issues around management and pricing and a total lack of clarity."

By contrast, Kenyan utility KPLC has let the use of its fibre network (see Internet News below) to three competing operators: Safaricom, Jamii Telecoms and the Wananchi Group. In this way, several players can make competing infrastructure offers whilst at the same time sharing a single network.

Tuesday, 23 February 2010

Barriers to Justice (Deplorable Prisons)

Justice Florence Lenganga earlier this month expressed concern over "deplorable conditions in which inmates were living in the country". The Judge would like to see more prison capacity :  "This address would be incomplete if I fail to mention the deteriorating conditions of our prisons, both in-terms of infrastructure in most provinces, the quality of food, lack of beddings, and in some cases non-availability of water, such that sometimes inmates have to walk long distances to fetch water and not forgetting the congestion of most of the prisons".  


We'll return the issue of inadequate prison capacity as part of our on-going series on Rethinking Justice. I'll simply note here that this is a very serious issue. In 2007 the prison capacity was around 4 000 but in the last two years we have had held almost 15 000 inmates, with less than half of these having been convicted and the rest were on remand. That is to say 50% of people in our jails have never seen justice. Just denied is bad bad enough but this also spreads to other areas. Overcrowding escalates to other problems such as lack of sleep, inadequate medical facilities, HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases,  and shortage of bedding and food.  Part of the problems of course is lack of court capacity, the other is inadequate funding of the Prison Service.

Monday, 22 February 2010

Linking Zambia (Butterfly Tree)

The Butterfly Tree charity is a UK based charity and registered NGO in Zambia working with rural communities, such as Mukuni. It was founded by Jane Kaye-Bailey after a business trip to Zambia with her late husband, Lawrence, in February 2006. During a visit to the Mukuni Village they learned about the  HIV/AIDS pandemic raving rural Zambia, especially the impact on families. Out of 1000 pupils in the school, 450 were orphans. This deeply distressed Jane who immediately decided to do something to help.

Sunday, 21 February 2010

The Zambia Foundation - A New Think Tank

We have partnered with Zambia Diaspora Connect   to help create the new The Zambia Foundation policy think tank. A Policy Director has already been chosen. This is an exciting development which I am sure many readers in Zambia and abroad will support.
The Zambia Foundation - A New Think Tank

Barriers to Justice (Transport)

We have previously noted how transport in rural areas has severely restricted justice. Another example of the same from Monze Magistrates Court. The Court Clerk Savanto Halwindi  recently pointed out that delivering justice to people has been curtailed by lack of transport in following up cases and conducting mobile courts.

Liberalisation of food exports?

It was wonderful to hear Finance Minister Situmbeko Musokotwane reveal that the Government plans to revise agricultural policy to allow the export of grain surpluses :

"The government is becoming flexible to consider the export of food as part of the diversification programme because the Zambian market is small"
We have previously discussed the importance of eliminating "export restrictions" as part of a broader reform package for agriculture - see A better vision for agriculture.. and The problem of expediency..

Saturday, 20 February 2010

This Week They Said

"It has been noticed that the rich, the powerful and famous appear to be above the law and go scot-free while the poor languish in prisons"
Reverend Mutale (Council of Churches in Zambia) on the rise of a non-tolerant culture.
"We have reached a stage where no one is responsible for anyone. People can steal with impunity, the Auditor General's office reveals it and no one takes action. This has now become an annual ceremony where we will read about various irregularities and they lie just like that"
Mission Press Director Father Miha Drevensek on Zambia's meaningless fight against corruption in Zambia.
"It is educated Zambians who have let this country down. The peasants and lowly paid workers have got no chance of stealing because they are not in positions where they can steal. It is people who are privileged with senior positions in organisations who are responsible for pilfering".
Caleb Fundanga (Bank of Zambia) on who is to blame for our current predicament.
"Zambia is now a plunderers’ paradise as we have come to live with the reality of corrupt elements in all government institutions every time the Auditor General’s report is out. We are living dangerously. There is stealing everywhere and almost by everyone. There is nothing left to write home about. Nathan Nyirenda's song Mwemakufi summarises it all. This nation needs a messiah and that is the common man who should stand up and fight this injustice against the poor. We are good at silencing people telling the truth and embracing thieves"
Wisdom Kaunda (Kabwe resident) laments on Zambia "the plunderers' paradise".

Friday, 19 February 2010

Book Reading Goal : Week 3

It was pleasure this week to pick up another excellent book : Counterfeit Gods: When the Empty Promises of Love, Money, and Power Let You Downby Timothy Keller. In this wonderful and challenging book, Tim Keller examines the problem of idolatry throughout the Bible and in our modern lives. An easy to read, biblically centred and culturally transforming look at the ever present temptation to worship things that can only disappoint.

Memorable Quote : "It is impossible to understand a culture without discerning it's idols".

Book Reading Goal Review
Books Read So Far : 5 books
Remaining Books to Achieve Target : 45 books
Weeks Remaining to Achieve Annual Target : 45 weeks

Thursday, 18 February 2010

Another side of the corruption fight coin..

Opinion on Maxwell Nkole is extremely divided. Many believe that he was forced out by the govt to protect Chiluba. Others such as myself believe he was incompentent and achieved nothing under his tenure. The truth probably is somewhere in between but you would not know it from this FT piece :

First Person, Maxwell Nkole, Financial Times, Commentary :

I come from a very humble background. My father was a primary school teacher, my mother a housewife, there were eight children. You looked around you and wondered why some families were privileged. As a result, I’ve always had a passion for justice and fair play.

As a young man I enlisted in the police. I took a law degree at the University of Zambia, a Masters at Cardiff, and I rose to become chief of Zambia’s CID. Later, after the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, I was sent to Kigali as a UN investigator, preparing cases for the International Criminal Tribunal in Arusha.

When we got to Kigali there was no electricity or water – everything had broken down. Dead bodies were lying everywhere. The work was so nauseating you could hardly eat. We were operating in four languages, trying to harmonise all the different legal systems. But we set some important precedents. We put the former Rwandan prime minister on trial, the first head of state to plead guilty to genocide before a court. We had rape classified as a war crime.

Then Zambia’s President Levy Mwanawasa decided to inject new life into the corruption investigation into his predecessor, Frederick Chiluba. He knew government resources had been misapplied and didn’t have confidence in the Anti-Corruption Commission. He set up the Task Force on Corruption, and in 2005 I was made chairman.

The Task Force recovered 1,000bn kwacha ($263m), registering close to 15 high-profile convictions. We scored a massive triumph in May 2007 with a civil case in London against Chiluba, who was found, in his absence, to have stolen $46m and was ordered to pay it back to the Zambian people. He had spent more than £500,000 on designer clothes; the court exhibits included 72 pairs of shoes. It was appalling to see a head of state wallowing in such luxury.

Then Mwanawasa died. Last August, a court in Zambia cleared Chiluba of corruption, saying he was not a public servant and the funds could not be traced to public coffers. He never took the oath or presented any defence. There were glaring anomalies in the judgment, so my prosecutors lodged an appeal. The Director of Public Prosecutions blocked it – the government said enough money had been spent.

I was sacked and the Task Force has been disbanded. I suspect it was all part of a political deal between the current administration and Chiluba. Mwanawasa’s successor won the elections by a slim margin and his ministers seem to believe Chiluba can help them win the 2011 elections. There was a choice between supporting my job and Chiluba, and they chose Chiluba.

At the time, I was surprised – I had not expected them to be so ruthless. But then I looked back and realised these people had divorced from me a long time before. I used to brief Mwanawasa every month. I didn’t even meet the current president for the 11 months before my removal.

I went from being a corruption hunter to being one of the hunted. Chiluba and his people hate us. My team has been smeared; the president has suggested we overspent. They are welcome to examine our accounts.

People are realising now that corruption is a far bigger problem for development than they thought. In Nigeria, South Africa and Zambia, all the specialised units set up to fight corruption have been undermined. The question is, what do you put in their place?

The good thing is that Zambians are up in arms. Before, they didn’t understand how the elite had acquired so much wealth while there was so little development. They didn’t know about the 349 shirts, the 206 designer jackets, the flats in Belgium. You cannot take the anti-corruption fight away from them now.

Barriers to Justice (Crowded Courts)

An interesting event occured last month. More than 60 remandees from Mpima Prison (Kabwe) allegedly walked to the district police offices in protest over "delayed justice". The prisoners remandees were apparently escorted to the police station to exercise their right to protest. The story would be funny if it wasn't the case for the fact that this represents a travesty of justice.

Tuesday, 16 February 2010

Barriers to Justice (Crowded Prisons)

An important IPS article on how the crowded court system has led to more people languishing in  crowded remand prisons as they await sentences. The limited capacity in the court system has led to "rationing of justice" with richer folks getting heard quickly at the expense of the poor. The wheels of justice turn slowly if you are poor and find yourself in a Lusaka jail holding 1800 prisoners but with a design capacity of 300.

Justice Delayed Becoming Justice Denied, Lewis Mwanangombe, IPS (Dec 2009), Commentary :

Harry Mubita was tired of his wretched condition in prison. He had been in Lusaka Central Prison for more than a year, and still there was no sign that his theft case would be heard.

Mubita, a tailor, accepted money from a woman who wanted him to make her a traditional dress known as the Chitenge Outfit – a long skirt and an intricately cut and sewn top, with a matching wrap-around and head-scarf. All made from a single length of material.

But he failed to deliver.

Mubita also did not refund the ZMK70,000 (about 14.40 dollars) payment, or return the six metres of cotton print. The aggrieved woman told the police, and two constables armed with AK-47 rifles arrested Mubita at his Kaunda Square Market shop. Mubita's case is not unusual. What is unusual is that the day the magistrate recorded Mubita’s second plea, July 15, was the day on which former President Frederick Chiluba's lawyers, Robert Simeza and John Sangwa, announced their intention to sue chief justice Ernest Sakala for being 'over-aged'.

From the time the lawyers sued the chief justice in the High Court, it took only a week before the case was on the roll and allocated to judge Munalula Lisimba.

Among ordinary Zambians it can take more than a month from the time of arrest to when the accused appears before a judicial officer. Sometimes cases in the High Court, including appeals against the outcome of parliamentary election results, take as long as a year to be heard.

The speed with which the case against chief justice Sakala was handled amazed not only Mubita but many Zambians as well.

Judge Sakala and judge Peter Chitengi, had presided over an appeal by a person whose identity the lawyers did not want to reveal, but other sources indicated she was Regina Mwanza Chiluba, wife of ex-president Frederick Chiluba. At the time they were already over the retirement age of 65 for judges.

The lawyers submitted that by presiding over a case when they should already have retired, the judges compromised the fairness due to their client, since they had no authority to do so.

They argued that if President Rupiah Banda had wanted to retain them he should have submitted their appointments to parliament, which would have ratified or rejected them. The lawyers sued on the validity of the judges staying in office, claiming the chief justice had violated the law by remaining in office without the mandate of the people.

"This is what is often referred to as 'shaking the tree', because though the lawyers did take the judges (Sakala and Chitengi) to court, nothing really came of it, except the airing of legal arguments," observed Greg Phiri, a third-year law student at the University of Zambia.

Indeed chief justice Sakala and judge Chitengi did go to court for being 'over-aged', and appeared before High Court judge Munalula Lisimba, but predictably the case was dismissed with costs against Simeza and Sangwa Associates.

This case incidentally highlighted the existence of two types of judicial process in Zambia: one for the privileged few and the other for the lower echelons of society

The hearing against chief justice Sakala took merely a month, while those of others will drag on for years.

Sakala admits there are too few courtrooms and even fewer magistrates.

"I have files full of complaints on delayed judgments and adjournments," chief justice Sakala said earlier this year. He accused the local court justices, magistrates and judges of frustrating justice by ordering what he described as 'strangely long adjournments of cases, regardless of whether the matters are urgent or not’.

Zambia's prisons are consequently bursting at the seams with humanity. Penitentiaries built by imperial Britain to hold a few hundred are now overcrowded with thousands.

Lusaka Central Prison, for example, built by colonial Britain in the late 1950s for about 300 inmates, is crammed with about 1,800 prisoners – those convicted or awaiting trial.

"We are so overcrowded that when we sleep we cannot turn over freely. We all have to agree that we are turning to the right, and that is when we can do it simultaneously," Mubita lamented.

Another former prisoner says in some cells prisoners have to sleep in turns: while others sleep another group will be standing over their inert bodies. After a while they exchange positions.

The ministry of home affairs estimates there are about 33,000 offenders in the hell-hole prisons country-wide, but the prison upkeep is something the government does not want to talk about.

Six years ago former commissioner of prisons, Jethro Mumbuwa, was so embarrassed by the nakedness of his prisoners that he pleaded for a donation of prison uniforms from the South African department of corrections. The Zambia Prison Service was given thousands of cast-away green prison uniforms for its inmates, who in some cases walked with their buttocks showing. In the 2009 budget finance and national planning minister, Situmbeko Musokotwane, gave the Public Order and Safety sector; under which the Zambia Prison Service falls, together with Zambia Police, a sum of ZMK610.7 billion.

In the 2010 budget unveiled in October, and still under debate in parliament, the minister has allocated to the sector a slightly increased sum of ZMK771.5 billion (or 4.6 percent of the total budget).

But it is not the budget or the wrangling of lawyers which are of interest to the poor languishing in prisons. It is not even the decision of the National Constitutional Conference to adopt a clause on the retirement age of the chief justice, and set it at 70.

"They can talk about the retirement age of the chief justice, but will that speed up the wheels of justice in this country?" Howard Banda of the Prison Fellowship of Zambia asks.

Like most Zambians with relatives in prison, this civil society organisation is concerned about delayed justice for many and hastened justice for a few.

"When are these people likely to receive their justice?" he asks, adding that some suspects have been held in prison for as long as four years without seeing the end of their case.

Admittedly, as with all aspects of Zambian life, the dispensing of justice has been compromised by HIV/AIDS, whose prevalence rate is at 16 percent, while life expectancy has dropped from 57 to 37.

Some court cases are often deferred repeatedly, either because presiding officers die of AIDS-related illnesses, or they are ill because of HIV, or their spouses and children are affected by the virus.

As for Mubita, he eventually walked out to freedom after the court sentenced him to six months, but since he had languished in prison for an entire year, it was ruled that he had served his sentence. And finally he was released.

Monday, 15 February 2010

Benefiting from the brain drain..

The final update from the Government Assurance Report (2009) highlights what government is apparently doing to combat the brain drain. It appears that finally people are beginning to heed the arguments we put forward on "living with a leaking bucket"

Benefiting from the Brain Drain, Government Assurance Report 2009, National Assembly, Excerpt :

On 7th March, 2006, the Hon Minister of Labour and Social Security made the following assurance on the floor of the House: "What we need to do is turn the brain drain to brain gain. This is why we are working on policies of how we should work with the receiving, exporting and importing nations of labour."

In his update, the Permanent Secretary reported that most Zambians were being trained to replace those that had left for greener pastures. Most organisations were being encouraged to improve their terms and conditions of service to attract those that had left to come back and serve their nation and once they came back, they came as skilled and competent persons especially those that have worked in the developed countries.

The Ministry has had meetings with the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) for technical assistance for the establishment of a system of registering all citizens in the diaspora so that the Government was able to track them and make use of them when the need arose. Furthermore, other efforts were being made through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to encourage the formation of diaspora associations in various countries as that would make it easier to identify skilled labour that could be used on issues concerning private sector development in Zambia.

Committee’s Observations and Recommendations

Your Committee observe that most skilled personnel, especially in the Ministry of Health and Education, opt to go outside the country for greener pastures. In view of the above, your Committee urge the Government to put in a provision in the Employment Act which would retain and attract skilled personnel within the country and in the diaspora to work in organisations and companies in Zambia. A progress report is awaited on the matter.

Sunday, 14 February 2010

Funding higher education

Without doubt the biggest challenge facing higher education is funding. In many countries it is accepted that higher education delivers benefits beyond the individual and therefore it is susceptible to under-provision if we relied on market forces alone. Until not too long ago for many African nations this meant government shouldering the full cost. Increasingly, we  now have other countries following Kenya, Zimbabwe and other countries towards greater role for private funding. It appears from the excerpt below that Zambia has been considering similar initiatives but without success :

Bursaries Committee Vis-à-vis Student Loans, Government Assurance Report (2009), National Assembly, Excerpt :

On 14th February, 2006, the Hon Deputy Minister of Finance and National Planning made the following undertaking on the floor of the House: “Mr Speaker……the Bursaries Committees has taken steps towards strengthening its operations to ensure that students financial requirements are adequately met. The Committee has entered into Memorandum of Understanding on behalf of Government and the Finance Bank to allow the bank administer the funds under the loans recoveries of funds given to students at the two universities.”

In his update, the Secretary the Treasury reported that in 2004, the Government initiated the reforms of the bursaries programme with the aim of replacing it with a "Student Loan Scheme" which would operate as a revolving fund for students at universities. The new loan scheme was planned to be administered through Finance Bank Zambia Limited which currently was disbursing funds on behalf of the Bursaries Committee.

During the financial years 2005 and 2006, the Bursaries Committee undertook study tours to Kenya and Zimbabwe respectively in order to understand how the student loans schemes operated in those countries. Those tours were very important in order to provide insight and understanding to the Bursaries Committee and those in turn would strengthen and widen the scope of the implementation of the new student loans scheme in Zambia. Following the study tours, the creation of the Zambia Higher Education Loans Board (ZAHELB) was proposed and later adopted by the Committee. The Board was to build on progress made so far in financing higher education in Zambia and perform the following functions:

a) establish mechanisms to recover mature loans;
b) establish a “tracer system” by using an identification system such as the Green National Registration Card Numbers as a tool to trace loaners or beneficiaries of the new loan scheme; and
c) establish a suitable system and instrument (Loans Application Form), capable of assessing applicants’ level of need by analyzing their financial status.

As a result, the above-mentioned proposal was finalised by the Committee and has been submitted to Cabinet for the creation of the above stated Board and implementation awaits Cabinet approval.

Committee’s Observations and Recommendations

Your Committee observe with concern that the Students’ Loan Scheme under the Bursaries committee will take long to be implemented as modalities of how to administer it were still on the drawing board. Your Committee, urge the Government to urgently approve the Students’ Loan Scheme to benefit the students, especially those from the vulnerable groups.
There are a number of a ways of doing this, but the approach appears to use an existing banking institution (shouldn't this be auctioned?) rather than creating a separate student loan company (e.g. the UK model). That aside it is good to see they have identified the key issues - tracing people; means testing; and repayment. In the past people have been most concerned about "tracing people" - the model appears to have solved that.

I would also like to see GRZ permanently ensure that "immigration officers" are able to arrest people returning to the country who have not paid back their debts (this appears to be the only credible threat - of course not without costs). If you borrow student finance and go abroad without paying you must be held accountable (e.g. by facing arrest on your return).

The other problem which has previously been raised is that people would not be able to pay back debts because they would be unemployed. I think if you have taken out a loan you would become a more responsible student. You will do all you can to take a course that will be useful in the long run. If people are able to fund their education, I suspect they would even be more responsible citizens. As I have always said, public provision whilst useful does make for lazy citizens. The other point of course is that such loans could be linked to certain courses. While I have no problem with someone taking a degree in catering or hotel management, if such courses are able to lead to a viable career then clearly the ability to repay would be limited.

Saturday, 13 February 2010

This Week They Said

“It is true the country may not be directly benefiting from the removal of the windfall tax”
Mines Minister Maxwell Mwale defending the mining fiscal regime.
“Tribalism is illegal in this country”
George Kunda accusing "The Pact" of tribalism.
"The people of Zambia must understand that the quality of your life is connected to the leadership that you have"
Pact Co-Leader Hakainde Hichilema touring areas affected by the floods in Lusaka.
“This alliance is a selfish desire to cling to power in order to perpetuate the abuse of national resources…”
General Malimba Masheke on the Chiluba - Rupiah collaboration for 2011.
“To borrow the street lingo, Banda and his men are now like ba chimbwi with no plan,”
Pact Co-Leader Michael Sata on the state of government.
“Your honour that man is a liar. We do not know him at all”
Lloyd Kayeka (MMD Chibombo Chairman) on the Clive Chirwa resignation from MMD.

Friday, 12 February 2010

Book Reading Goal : Week 2

In between my trip to Sweden and having to complete some papers, I managed to read two interesting books. One directly related to my current area of interest (criminal justice), another is a book on Zambia.

When Brute Force Fails: How to Have Less Crime and Less Punishment, by Mark A. R. Kleiman : A book that has received raving reviews. Mark Kleiman examines the thorny questions surrounding Criminal Justice Policy in the USA, but certainly with broader lessons all around. A pleasurable read, though I found it was too narrowly focused on reducing "crime" without sufficiently paying attention to the question of how that relates to delivering "justice". It strikes that if all we cared about was reducing crime, it wouldn't be too difficult. The challenge is how that fits in with a deeper conception of what justice entails. A must read nevertheless.

Glimmers of Hope : Memoir of a Volunteer in Africa, by Mark Burke : A deeply personal and frank account of a London schoolteacher, who founded himself in Chassa Secondary, Eastern Province. The memoir is both a recollection of his more vivid memories of eastern province, and his reflections on problems in Zambia and their possible causes. Not for the faint hearted, a lot to chew over. A full review to to follow towards the end of the month.


Book Reading Goal Review
Books Read So Far : 4 books
Remaining Books to Achieve Target : 46 books
Weeks Remaining to Achieve Annual Target : 46 weeks

Linking Zambia (Kalaki's Corner)

Roy Clarke now has a blog that replicates his famous column in The Post.
(HT : Lodgeblog)

Thursday, 11 February 2010

ICT in the Zambian Classroom

An interesting brief on the lessons learned from the Education Support Network (ESNET) project in Zambia: a
project developed jointly by OneWorld Africa Zambia and IICD in 2006 - summary :

The project shows how ICT enhances the quality of existing local teaching materials in the Zambian classroom. The lessons are intended for practitioners in the field as well as organisations that would like to learn from the experiences of this project and implement similar activities.

Tuesday, 9 February 2010

An uneasy transition

A useful summary of the last year and outlook for 2010. Nothing new but nevertheless useful for broad reference :

An uneasy transition, Raziah Khan, Standard Chartered Global Focus, Commentary (Restricted Access) :

Sound growth, but infrastructure and policy pose risks to outlook

Provisional 2009 GDP data reveals that Zambia was one of the few countries which grew faster in 2009 than in 2008, despite the crisis. While trend growth has been rising for some time (growth averaged 5.9% over the past five years, improving to 6.2% in the last three years), and despite otherwise-subdued activity on the copper belt, Zambia benefited in 2009 from the outcome of a multi-year investment cycle at its largest mine. As a result, mining is thought to have expanded by 21.4% y/y last year; construction (up by 15.5%) and a bumper maize harvest (agriculture rose by 7.1%) also contributed to growth. Yet despite this, few believe that Zambia is performing close to its potential.

For all of the success of Zambian tourism in recent years (due in part to a decline in visitors to neighbouring Zimbabwe), Zambia’s tourism sector is still growing more slowly than the African average, according to the World Bank. Zambian agriculture, too, is notoriously subject to boom-bust cycles, which are not helped by policy uncertainty over farmers’ ability to export their surplus. (Under the ’food security’ platform, decisions to either liberalise or ban exports are largely based on the current season’s grain surplus or deficit rather than multi-season planning, discouraging new long-term investment in the sector.) When exports are prohibited, food surpluses drive down domestic prices, acting as a disincentive to producers to invest in capacity. The stop-and-go nature of Zambia’s diversification means that export growth remains overly dependent on copper mining. As of November 2009, mining accounted for almost 90% of Zambia’s merchandise exports.

The mining taxation regime – an unstable equilibrium

While Zambia has emerged from the global crisis in better shape than most economies, helped by an early China-driven rally in copper prices, doubts persist about the sustainability growth and the extent of the trickle-down. Although copper output is expected to rise to more than 700,000 tonnes this year (comparable to levels last seen in the 1960s, prior to mine nationalisation), several factors may put this forecast at risk. A surprising feature of our discussions with mining companies in Zambia was the extent to which local factors – rather than risks to the global outlook and copper prices – appeared to dominate their worries. The top concerns included transport infrastructure, power supply, fuel availability, Zambia’s high-cost environment, the stickiness of inflation expectations, and wage demands, as well as the risk associated with the political backdrop and taxation of mining earnings. The authorities, long criticised for ’development agreements’ seen as overly generous to new private-sector foreign investors in Zambia’s mines, introduced a controversial price-based windfall tax on copper earnings in 2008. (The proposed tax targeted turnover rather than profitability and was seen to contravene tax holidays previously contracted with investors, only adding to the controversy.) In early 2009, in response to the global crisis and with mines threatening to shut down and large numbers of contract workers made redundant, the windfall tax was scrapped. Since then, copper prices have rallied much more than most had forecast.

With Zambia facing elections in 2011, and opposition centrists and leftists uniting through a new pact, the mining sector fears that the issue of the windfall tax may return and be politicised once again. Part of the problem is that the direct contribution of mining-related taxes to overall revenue is currently low, even with the increase in royalties from 0.6% to 3%. Mining companies point instead to the sector’s overall contribution to the economy; revenue from SMEs dependent on mining activity makes up a significant proportion of PAYE and VAT receipts. For much of Zambian civil society, however, this is not enough. Copper is not a renewable resource, and it is argued that much of the copper will be mined before the sector is taxed effectively. There are concerns about the extent of trickledown, the lack of significant revenue upside from rising copper prices, and a perception that the rest of Zambia’s formal economy faces a dispropotionately heavy tax burden because of inadequate taxation of mining. This makes it difficult to expand the tax base, with the informal economy resisting formalisation.

Given the strength of feeling on the subject, mining companies are now reacting to tax regime uncertainty by winding down investment activity. Plans made before the imposition of the windfall tax, where considerable capital expenditure has already been committed, are continuing. But new investment – which may be necessary even to extend the current life of more marginal mines – has stalled. This has created an uneasy equilibrium, with some mines behaving as though the windfall tax is still in place. Zambia is paying for the cost of this uncertainty, without necessarily seeing any revenue benefit. Given this sub-optimal equilibrium, further change is likely.


Monday, 8 February 2010

How educated is your local MP?

As debate rages over presidential degrees, a timely compilation by Bivan Saluseki of the qualifications of MPs - the people who make your laws. There are some surprises there - some people who I thought were quite educated, appears not to have any qualifications at all. There's also a lot of meaningless certified courses masquerading as qualifications  :

Amusaa K Mwanamwamba - Speaker
Date of Birth: May 15, 1940
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: A’Level, Diploma in Tourism and Planning, BA (Political Science)
Profession: Journalist/Tourism Expert
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 1991, Liuwa Constituency
2nd election: 1996, Liuwa Constituency
3rd Election: 1998, Speaker
4th Election: 2001, Speaker
5th Election: 2006, Speaker

Mutale Nalumango - Deputy Speaker
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Kaputa
Date of Birth: January 1, 1955
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form 5, Leadership Course, Secondary Teachers Diploma
Profession: Teacher
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2001 Kaputa
2nd election: 2006 Kaputa

Mkhondo Lungu - Deputy Chairman of Committees
Political Party: UNIP
Constituency: Lundazi
Date of Birth: February 18, 1943
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE O’ Level, BA (Political Science and Public Administration), Postgraduate Diploma in International Relations
Profession: Political Scientist, Administrator, Diplomat and Teacher
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2001 Lundazi
2nd election: 2006 Lundazi
Members of the National Assembly (in alphabetical order)

Mwendoi Akakandelwa – D/Minister Energy and Water Development
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mangango
Date of Birth: March 14, 1958
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, ‘A’ Levels, Pilots Training
Profession: Banker and Pilot
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Mangango

Ackimson Banda – C/Province Minister
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Serenje Central
Date of Birth: February 4, 1949
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE ‘O’ Levels, Teachers’ Certificate, Certificate in Agriculture
Profession: Agriculturalist/ Rtd. Soldier
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2001 Serenje
2nd election: 2006 Serenje

Chifumu Kingdom Banda
Political Party: FDD
Constituency: Chasefu
Date of Birth: January 2, 1950
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Cambridge School Certificate, Diploma (Alternative Dispute Resolution) Advocate of the High Court of Zambia, LLB (Merit)
Profession: Legal Practitioner
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Chasefu

Ester Mwila Banda
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Chililabombwe
Date of Birth: November 4, 1958
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, BA (Sociology)
Profession: Sociologist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Chililabombwe

Isaac Banda – Eastern Province Minister
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Lumezi
Date of Birth: April 17th, 1956
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications : Form V, Diploma in Clinical Medicine (Psychiatry)
Profession: Clinician
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Lumezi

Reuben Chisanga Banda
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Milanzi
Date of Birth: December 25, 1965
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Certificate and Diploma in Audit (CIDFA)
Profession: CIPFA, Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy Accountant
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2007 By-election Milanzi

Godfrey Mwiize Beene
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Itezhi-Tezhi
Date of Birth: July 25, 1966
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma -Accounts
Profession: Accountant
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Itezhi-Tezhi
Hobies/Interessts: Farming, Travelling and Soccer

Misheck Bonshe – D/min – Home Affairs
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mufumbwe
Date of Birth: February 4, 1945
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Cert. (Security Management), Certificate Police Training, Diploma in Criminal Investigations, Diploma in Principles of Modern Management
Profession: Detective Manager
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Mufumbwe

Rev. Violet Sampa-Bredt
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Chawama
Date of Birth: October 27, 1950
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Divinity, Masters Degree in Divinity, Theology
Profession: Minister of Religion
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Chawama

Benson Bwalya
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Chifubu
Date of Birth: March 18, 1960
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V
Profession: Retired army officer
History of election to Parliament:
1st election: 2005 Chifubu

Col Gerry Chanda
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Kanyama
Date of Birth: April 28, 1946
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Cambridge School Certificate
Profession: Military pilot, flying instructor, commercial pilot
History of Election to Parliament: 1st election: 2008 Kanyama

Percy Chanda
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Kankoyo
Date of Birth: May 21, 1954
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications : Form V, Craft Certificate
Profession: Trade Unionist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: Kankoyo

Lucy Shirley Changwe – Deputy Minister of Gender and Women in Development
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mkushi North
Date of Birth: November 11, 1973
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, Certificate in Environmental Education, BA (Education)
Profession: Educationist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Mkushi

George Chazangwe
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Choma Central
Date of Birth: December 25, 1948
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE ‘O’ Level, Diploma in Education
Profession: Teacher/Headmaster
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Choma Central

Barnabas Chella
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Wusakile
Date of Birth: February 11, 1951
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V
Profession: Farmer
History of Election to Parliament: 1st election: 2006 Wusakile

Major Celestino Kapolyo Chibamba
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Shiwangandu
Date of Birth: December 17, 1943
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE ‘O’Level, Cert in Motor Vehicle Technology, Mechanical Engineering Courses
Profession: Building constructor
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 1991, 1996, 2006 Chiwan’gandu

Lameck Chibombamilimo
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mpulungu
Date of Birth: June 25, 1961
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Certificate/Advanced Diploma ed, BA Development Studies (Progress)
Profession: Educationist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Mpulungu

Todd Stewart Chilembo – D/Minister of Justice
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Chama North
Date of Birth: January 1, 1961
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, LPQE Certificate, LLB, advocate of the High Court and Supreme Court of Zambia
Profession: Advocate
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Chama North

Edwin Besa Chimbaka
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Bahati
Date of Birth: May 15, 1951
Marital Status: Marraied
Educational Qualifications: GCE ‘O’Level, Certificate in Education and Management, Diploma in Education, Certificate in Industrial and Trade Unions Management
Profession: Teacher
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Bahati

John Mumpanshya Chinyanta - Northern Province Minister
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mambilima
Date of Birth: October 11, 1961
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE ‘O’ Level, Certificate in Teaching, Diploma in Science, post-graduate certificate in project management, post-graduate certificate in HIV/AIDS and psychosocial counselling, BA (Education)
Profession: Teacher
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Mambilima
Interests/Interests: Reading nature books

Kenneth Chipungu Minister Sport, Youth and Child Development
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Rufunsa
Date of Birth: December 10, 1953
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, Diploma Agricultural education, Diploma Marketing, B Comm., marketing
Profession: Marketer/Agriculturalist/Secondary School Teacher
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006, Rufunsa

Obius Chabu Chisala
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Chilubi
Date of Birth: July 2, 1962
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Education, BA (Education)
Profession: Teacher
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Chilubi

Sydney Chisanga
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mkushi
Date of Birth: October 30, 1970
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V
Profession: Businessman
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Mkushi South
Interests/Interests: Politics/Worship

Dr Bernard Elija Chisha
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Pambashe
Date of Birth: January 3, 1948
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE ‘O’ Level, Nuclear Science, Bsc, Msc, PHD
Profession: Research Scientist/University Lecturer
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Pambashe

Samuel Chitonge
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Mwansabombwe
Date of Birth: December 2, 1972
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12 ‘A’ Level, Certificate in Biomedical Sciences
Profession: Medical Laboratory Technician
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006,2008 Mwansabombwe
Interests/Interests: Reading, Soccer, Music

Brig Gen Dr Brian Chituwo – Minister of Science and Technology
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mumbwa Central
Date of Birth: June 1, 1947
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, B.Sc (Human Biology), Msc (Orthopaedics), General Aviation Medicine (GAM), M.B Ch.B (Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery), Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS – Edinburgh)
Profession: Orthopadic surgeon
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2002, Nominated, 2006 Mumbwa Central

Major Robbie Chizhyuka
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Namwala
Date of Birth: December 14, 1954
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, GCE ‘A’ Level, Telecoms Engineer
Profession: Army Officer (Rtd)
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Namwala

Jacob Chongo
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Mwense
Date of Birth: March 23, 1962
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Certificate in Technical Mining, Diploma – sales and marketing management
Profession: Miner/Businessman
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Mwense
Interests/Interests: Soccer, going to church, social outings, farming

Lazarous Chota
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Lubansenshi
Date of Birth: September 10, 1954
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Dip. Management, Dip. Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations, Human Management Consultant, CISA, BA Public Administration
Profession: Management and Human Resources Consultant
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Lubansenshi

Angela Njodo Cifire – Deputy Minister Information and Broadcasting
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Luangeni
Date of Birth: December 14, 1959
Marital Status: Single
Educational Qualifications: Form 5, BA. Psychology
Profession: Human Resource/Public Relations Specialist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Luangeni

Peter Daka – Minster of Agriculture
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Msanzala
Date of Birth: November 3, 1960
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Shipping, Diploma in Purchasing and Supplies, Post Graduate Diploma in Ports and Shipping Administration, member of chartered institute of logistics and transport (MCLT), MBA
Profession: Buyer/Business Administrator
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2003, 2006, Msanzala

Munji Habeenzu
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Chikankata
Date of Birth: September 1973
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, diploma in transport and logistics, diploma in public health
Profession: social worker
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Chikankata

Emmanuel Maposa Hachipuka
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Mbabala
Date of Birth: February 10, 1947
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, ACCA
Profession: Chartered Certified Accountant FZICA
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2000, 2001, 2006 Mbabala
Interests/Interests: farming, cattle and crops

Highvie Hambulo Hamududu
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Bweengwa
Date of Birth: March 23, 1970
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, BA (Economics)
Profession: Economist
History of election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006, Bweengwa

Boyd Hamusonde
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Nangoma
Date of Birth: October 4, 1956
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, GCE certificate mechanics - automobile
Profession: Diesel Pump Technician
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Nangoma

Hastings Lubinda Imasiku – Deputy Minister Energy
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Liuwa
Date of Birth: September 6, 1948
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Public Health Engineering, Diploma in Public Health Inspection, Higher Dip. Health Service Management, Dip. Food Technology, Public Prosector
Profession: Public Health Inspector
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006

Eileen Mbuywana Imbwae
Political Party: ULP
Constituency: Lukulu West
Date of Birth: August 21, 1947
Marital Status: Widow
Educational Qualifications: Cambridge School Certificate, BA. (Education), Post Graduate Cert. in Education, Msc. Human Resource Development)
Profession:
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006

Batuke Imenda
Political Party: ULP
Constituency: Lukulu East
Date of Birth: August 28, 1954
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE ‘O’Level Diploma in Management Studies, BA (Business Studies), MBA Business Studies
Profession: Business Consultant
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2001, 2006 Lukulu East

Simon Kachimba – Deputy Minister of Labour and Social Security
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Luanshya
Date of Birth: November 1, 1948
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GEC Certificate, Certificate in Environmental Science
Profession: Businessman
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Luanshya

Michael Kaingu – Minister of Community Development and Social Services
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mwandi
Date of Birth: February 2, 1952
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Cambridge School Certificate, Certificate in Business Studies, Diploma in Electronics, Diploma in Avionics, MBA
Profession: Business/Engineer
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 – Mwandi

Charles Wahuna Kakoma
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Zambezi West
Date of Birth: December 21, 1960
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, BA. Economics and Business Administration
Profession: Economist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2001, 2006, Zambezi West

Kayula Kakusa
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Kabwe Central
Date of Birth: March 4, 1964
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V
Profession: Businessman
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 – Kabwe Central

Daniel Kalenga – North Western Province Minister
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Kabombo West
Date of Birth: August 28, 1964
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Certificate in Small Business Development, Certificate in Business Studies
Profession: Businessman
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 1996, 2006, Kabombo West

Dr Christopher Kalila - Deputy Minister of Works and Supply
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Nominated
Date of Birth: January 6, 1966
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Postgraduate Diploma in Business Administration, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery
Profession: Medical Practitioner
History of Election to Parliament: Reading current affairs, watching sports, travelling and gardening.
1st election: Nominated 2008
Interests/Interests:

Dr Katele Kalumba
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Chienge
Date of Birth: February 22, 1952
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, BA, Msc. (Psychotherapy), PhD. Fellow of Community Health (FCH) University of Toronto
Profession: Public Health Consultant
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006 Chienge

Chishimba Kambwili
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Roan
Date of Birth: June 3, 1969
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, Certificate in Trade Union Studies, Diploma in Business Management/Administration
Profession: Business administrator/human resource Practitioner
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 – Roan

Jean Kapata
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Mandevu
Date of Birth: December, 1960
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE, O Levels, Diploma in Nursing, Diploma in Theatre and Emergency Nursing
Profession: Nurse
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 – Mandevu

Mwansa Kapeya
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Mpika Central
Date of Birth: June 6, 1950
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE ‘O’ Level, Diploma in Mass Communication; International Trainer, Research and Public Relations; Personnel Mgt& Industrial Relations.
Profession: Journalist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 – Mpika

Chileshe Mpundu Kapwepwe – Deputy Minister of Finance and National Planning
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Nominated
Date of Birth: October 7, 1958
Marital Status: Divorced
Educational Qualifications: Form V, AAT, ACCA, Master of Business Administration
Profession: Accountant/Business Administrator
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election:

Edward Kasoko
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Mwembeshi
Date of Birth: June 10, 1949
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Mechanical Engineering
Profession: Mechanical Engineer/Businessman
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2001, 2006 – Mwembeshi

Joseph Chambula Kasongo
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Bangweulu
Date of Birth: October, 1952
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE ‘O’ level, Diploma in Education, BA, Master of Business Administration
Profession: Administrator
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 1978, 1983, 1988, 2001, 2006

Dr Joseph Katema
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Chingola
Date of Birth: November 20, 1961
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, MBCHB, BSc (Medicine and Surgery)
Profession: General Medical Practitioner
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006

Stephen Katuka
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Mwinilunga East
Date of Birth: March 5, 1953
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Telecom Engineering
Profession: Telecoms Tech/Army Officer
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006, Mwinilunga

Dr Boniface Kawimbe – Luapula Province Minister
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Nominated
Date of Birth: October
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Bsc MB. ChB, Bsc Surgery (General, Paediatric Surgery)
Profession: Medical Doctor
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election:

Dr Eustarckio Kazonga – Local Government Minister
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Vubwi
Date of Birth: June 20, 1959
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Cambridge School Certificate, Diploma Education, Bsc. Education, MBA, Msc, DBA
Profession: Statistician
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006

Kenneth Konga – Minister of Energy
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Chavuma
Date of Birth: March 29, 1958
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form 5, Bsc, Msc computer engineering
Profession: Engineer
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: Chavuma

George Kunda – Vice-President and Minister of Justice
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Muchinga
Date of Birth: February 26, 1956
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Bachelor of Laws Degree (LLB) LPQE Certificate, Advocate of the High Court and Supreme Court
Profession: Advocate/Solicitor
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2002, 2006 Muchinga

Austin Liato – Minister of Labour and Social Security
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Kaoma Central
Date of Birth: August 23, 1965
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Accounts
Profession: Accountant
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2001, 2003, 2006 Kaoma

Josephine Limata
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Luampa
Date of Birth: August 8, 1948
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE
Profession: Businesswoman
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 – Luampa

Given Lubinda
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Kabwata
Date of Birth: May 15, 1963
Marital Status: Single
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Certificate Strategic Planning, Certificate Natural Resources, Diploma, Agricultural Business
Profession: Agriculturalist/Consultant
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2001,2006 – Kabwata

Gladys Mwewa Lundwe - Deputy Minister Sport, Youth and Child Development
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Masaiti
Date of Birth: December 25, 1964
Marital Status: Single
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Human Resources Development. Shorthand, Typing
Profession: Secretary
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Masaiti
Interests/Interests: swimming, listening to gospel music, travelling

Professor Geoffrey Lungwangwa - Minister of Communications and Transport
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Nalikwanda
Date of Birth: July 15, 1953
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, BA (Education), Master of Education, PhD (education)
Profession: Professor of education
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Nalikwanda

Mulemi Michael Mabenga – Deputy Minister Lands
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mulobezi
Date of Birth: June 4, 1949
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Upper Primary Teachers’ Certificate, Advanced Primary Teachers’ Certificate, MA (English Language Teaching), MA (ELT)
Profession: Teacher
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 1996, 2001, 2006 – Mulobezi

Bradford Machila Minister of Livestock
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Kafue
Date of Birth: May 4, 1965
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE, ‘O’ Levels, Bachelor of Laws (LLB) LPQE Certificate, Master of Laws (LLM)
Profession: Advocate
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 – Kafue

Dr Peter Machungwa
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Luapula
Date of Birth: December 15, 1950
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Cambridge School Certificate, BA (Psychology) Msc. (Industrial Psychology) PhD (Industrial and Organisational Psychology)
Profession: Industrial Psychologist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 1991,1996, 2001, 2006

Peter Magande
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Chilanga
Date of Birth: July 5, 1947
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Bachelor of Arts, Msc (Economics)
Profession: Economist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: Married

Mwiimba Malama
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Mfuwe
Date of Birth: April 28, 1976
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Certificate (Business Administration) Advanced Certificate (Business Administration), Diploma in Business Administration
Profession: Businessman
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election:

Friday Peter Chipepo Malwa – Deputy Minister Community Development
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Kapiri Mposhi
Date of Birth: September 28, 1952
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, GCE, Cert. (Management Training), Certificate (Basic Supervisor) Cert. (Salesmanship Leadership in Development of the Dynamic World) (Harvard University) Boston USA, Cert (Stock Control) Transworld College, New Jersey, Britain
Profession: marketing executive/politician
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 - Kapiri
Interests/Interests: Football, golf, reading

Lameck Mangani – Minister of Home Affairs
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Chipata Central
Date of Birth: November 10, 1957
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Cert. (Primary School Teaching) Advanced Diploma (Education), BA (Education)
Profession: Teacher/Corporate Manager
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Chipata Central

Sylvia Masebo
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Chongwe
Date of Birth: May 7, 1963
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, BA (Economics and Education)
Profession: Economist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2001, 2006 Chongwe

David Matongo
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Pemba
Date of Birth: November 24, 1948
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Bachelor of Commerce and Economics
Profession: Businessman/Economist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2001,2006 – Pemba

Allan Mbewe – Deputy Minister Agriculture and Cooperatives
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Chadiza Central
Date of Birth: September 12, 1964
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Agriculture
Profession: Agriculturist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 – Chadiza

Mwansa Mbulakulima – Copperbelt Province Minister
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Chembe
Date of Birth: August 10, 1962
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Certificate in Accounts (Cabs), Diploma in accountancy, diploma in human resources management, graduate diploma in human resource management
Profession: Accountant/human resource practitioner
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election:
Interests/Interests: Administration of sport, reading Current Affairs

Charles Milupi
Political Party: Independent
Constituency: Luena
Date of Birth: April 25, 1954
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Honours Degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Profession: Engineer
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Luena

Maynard Misapa - Deputy Minister Sports
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mporokoso
Date of Birth: April 29, 1957
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Advanced Certificate in Agriculture, Diploma Education
Profession: Educationist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Mporokoso

Elizabeth Mulobeka
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Kawambwa
Date of Birth: April 17, 1964
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Human Resource Management, BA (Development Studies)
Profession: Development Analyst
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 1996, 2006, Kawambwa

Vitalis Mooya
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Moomba
Date of Birth: September 21, 1949
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Ordinary National Diploma in Building and Civil Engineering, Dip. Technology in Building and Construction, B. Engineering
Profession: Civil Engineering
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2001, 2006 Moomba

George Mpombo
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Kafulafuta
Date of Birth: January 1, 1954
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, Diploma in Journalism, Dip. Human Resource Management, Dip. purchasing
Profession: Buyer/human resource practitioner
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 1988, 2001, 2006

Lombani M’sichili
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Kabushi
Date of Birth: April 15, 1962
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE ‘O’ Level AAT I
Profession: Businessman
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Kabushi
Interests/Interests: Reading, Travelling, Golf
Mubika Mubika – Deputy Minister Communications and Transport
Political Party: MMD

Constituency: Sinjembela
Date of Birth: August 20, 1973
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE ‘O’ Level
Profession: Businessman
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2005, 2006

Elijah Muchima - Deputy Minister Local Government
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mwinilunga West
Date of Birth: June 26, 1957
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Accountancy, Certificate in Law (UK)
Profession: Accountant
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006, Mwinilunga

Adons Mufalali – Deputy Minister Community Development
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Sesheke
Date of Birth: January 2, 1947
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE ‘O’ Level
Profession: Businessman
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Sesheke

Yamfwa Mukanga
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Kantanshi
Date of Birth: July 9, 1965
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, B Eng
Profession: Mechanical Engineer, MEIZ
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2004, 2006 Kantanshi

Ronald Mukuma – Minister for presidential affairs
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Kabompo East
Date of Birth: November 1, 1944
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Transport, Bachelor of Commerce Msc (Transport Engineering and Mining)
Profession: Transport planner and Economist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Kabompo East

Christopher Mulenga
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Chinsali Central
Date of Birth: March 16, 1964
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, Diploma in Business Accounting and Management
Profession: Accountant
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Chinsali

Lombe Mulenga
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Kwacha
Date of Birth: July 11, 1967
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, Certificate in Business Administration, ACCA
Profession: Accountant, Business Administrator/ Consultant
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Kwacha

Albert Mulonga – Deputy Minister Agriculture
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Lupososhi
Date of Birth: August 27, 1969
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, Diploma in Clinical Medicine, BA (Economics and Public Administration)
Profession: Economist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006, Lupososhi

Mike Isaiah Mulongoti – Minister of Works and Supply
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Nominated
Date of Birth: August 3, 1951
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Cert. Business Management, Diploma in Business Management, Masters of Business Administration NAPIER, LLB (UNZA)
Profession: Administrator
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 1995, 1996, 2006

Joseph Mulyata – Deputy Minister Agriculture and Cooperatives
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mongu Central
Date of Birth: June 5, 1960
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Certificate in Teaching, Diploma in Secondary Education MBA
Profession: Administrator/Teacher
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Mongu central
Hobbies/Interests: Athletics

Emmanuel Munaile
Political Party: Independent
Constituency: Malole
Profession: Computer Analyst
Date of Birth: November 26, 1960
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V Diploma in Computer Studies
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006

Daniel Munkombwe – Minister Southern Province
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Nominated
Date of Birth: May 16, 1932
Marital Status: Married
Profession: Farmer
Educational Qualifications: Form 2
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 1973, 1983, 1988, 2007
Hobbies/Interests: Football

Request Muntanga
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Kalomo Central
Date of Birth: October 27, 1952
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Cambridge School Certificate, Diploma in Agriculture, Advanced Diploma in Agriculture Business Management
Profession: Agriculturist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2001,2006

Mark Mushili
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Ndola Central
Date of Birth: May 21, 1949
Marital Status: Widower
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma Education, Fellow, London Institute of Marketing
Profession: Educationist/Business Administrator
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Ndola Central
Hobbies/Interests: Watching Football

Regina Musokotwane
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Katombola
Date of Birth: October 21, 1950
Marital Status: Widow
Educational Qualifications: Form 2, Advanced Diploma in Special Education
Profession: Teacher
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2001, 2006, Katombola

Dr Situmbeko Musokotwane – Minister of Finance
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Nominated
Date of Birth: May 25, 1956
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, BA (Economics) MA (Economics) PhD (Economics)
Profession: Economist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006

Dr Solomon Musonda –Deputy Minister Health
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Chitambo
Date of Birth: July 29, 1976
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12 Certificate Bsc (Human Biology) UNZA Bachelors of Medicine and Surgery (MBChB) UNZA
Profession: Medical Doctor
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2009 Chitambo

Chrispine Musosha – Science and Technology Deputy Minister
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mansa Central
Date of Birth: October 23, 1958
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V
Profession: Road Engineer/Procurement Specialist
History of Election to Parliament:
1st election: 2006 Mansa Central

Felix Mutati – Commerce Minister
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Lunte
Date of Birth: January 29, 1959
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Bachelor of Accountancy, ACCA, FCCA, FZICA
Profession: Accountant

Moses Muteteka - Local Government Deputy Minister
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Chisamba
Date of Birth: 10th February,1970
Marital status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, Diploma in Marketing
Profession: Marketer

Raphael Muyanda
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Sinazongwe
Date of Birth: 1st January,1951
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE ‘0’ Levels, Diploma Business Administration, Diploma in Mining Engineering.
Profession: Businessman

Vernon J Mwaanga, GOEZ – Government Chief Whip
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Nominated
Date of Birth: 25th June,1944
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V,BA Degree in International Relations
Profession: Businessman/Diplomat, Author

Maxwell Moses Boma Mwale –Minister of Mines and Minerals Development
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Malambo
Date of Birth: 9th May, 1957.
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, BSc(Mining), MSc/DIC(Mining)
Profession: Mining Engineer

Vincent Mwale
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Chipangali
Date of Birth: 5th December,1978.
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, Advanced Certificate in Project Management and Planning.
Profession: Businessman

Alfreda C K Mwamba
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Lukashya
Date of Birth: 5th July,1961
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Cambridge ‘0’ Level Certificate,BA(Education), LLB(UNZA)
Profession: Teacher/Lawyer

Geoffrey Bwalya Mwamba
Political Party: PF
Constituency:Kasama Central
Date of Birth: 15th March,1959
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications:Grade 12
Profession: Businessman

Mubita Mwangala
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Nalolo
Date of Birth: 11th November,1942
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Mass Communication
Profession: Journalist

Davies Mwango
Political Party: PF
Constituency:Kanchibiya
Date of Birth:11th November,1971
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications:Form V, Certificate in Motor Mechanics, Advanced Certificate in IT
Profession: Businessman/Farmer

Ernest Chitumwa Mwansa
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Chifunabuli
Date of Birth: 24th July,1957
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications:Form 5,Certificate in Assaying(Analytical Chemistry), LLB(UNZA),AHZ/Post Graduate Certificates in Public Health,Post Graduate in International Health
Profession: Lawyer

Dr Kalombo Mwansa – Minister of Defence
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Nominated
Date of Birth: 9th September,1955
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications:Form V,LLB,Master of Laws(LLM), Master of Philosophy,(Criminology),Doctor of Philosophy (Law)
Profession: Lawyer/Academician

Humphrey Mwanza
Political Party: MMD
Constituency:Solwezi West
Date of Birth: 22nd April,1949
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications:Form V,Advanced Diploma in Administration Management
Profession: Teacher/HR-Practitioner

Marjory Mambwe Mwape
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Mufulira
Date of Birth: 12th October1967
Marital Status: Single
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Chartered Institute of Management Accountant Certificate
Profession: Accountant

Sikwibele Richard Mwapela – Minister Western Province
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Kalabo Central
Date of Birth: 27th September,1965
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V,Certificate in Pastel Accounting, Certificate in Public Relations, Diploma in Marketing
Profession: Businessman

Bennie Kelvis Mweemba
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Magoye
Date of Birth: 25th February,1952
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V,Diploma in Modern Management
Profession: Manager/Accountant

Musenge Laban Mwenya
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Nkana
Date of Birth: 26th December,1963
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V,
Profession: Contractor in Civil & Mechanical Engineering
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Monze
Date of Birth: 23rd July,1959
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Cambridge Certificate, LLB, LPQE Certificate,AHZ
Profession: Legal Practitioner

Yoram Benjamin Mwila
Political Party: NDF
Constituency: Nchelenge
Date of Birth: 17th September,1943
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Corperation of Certified Secretaries
Profession: Chartered Business Administrator

Davies Mwila
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Chipili
Date of Birth: 12th December,1963
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V
Profession: Trade Unionist

Catherine Namugala – Minister of Tourism
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Isoka
Date of Birth: 2nd January,1966
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE,Diploma in Catering, Post Graduate Diploma in Management
Profession: Caterer

Gabriel Namulambe
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mpongwe
Date of Birth: 27th May 1967
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12,Certificate in Human Resource Management,Fellow Institute of Local Government Administrators of Zambia(ILGAZ) Parts I,II,III-NIPA
Profession: Local Government Administrator

Mundia Ndalamei – Deputy Minister Sport, Youth and Child Development
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Sikongo
Date of Birth: 1964
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, Diploma in Clinical Medicine
Profession: Clinical Officer

Levy Joseph Ngoma
Political Party: FDD
Constituency:Sinda
Date of Birth: 27th April,1975
Marital Status: Single
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12

Profession: Businessman
Bornface Nkhata
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Chama South
Date of Birth: 30th September,1961
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V,Certificate in Cooperative Management,Certificate in Management Studies
Profession: Manager

Gary G Nkombo
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Mazabuka Central
Date of Birth: 1st March,1965
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V,BA (Education)
Profession: Teacher/Businessman

Willie Nsanda
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Chimwemwe
Date of Birth: 29th May,1952
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V,Craft Certificate in Agriculture Mechanics, Advanced Training Rolls Engines
Profession: Agricultural Mechanic (Metallurgy)

Brian Macloudine Muleya Ntundu
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Gwembe
Date of Birth: 6th July,1963
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications:Form V, Diploma Business Administration
Profession: Business Administrator

Michael Andrew Nyirenda
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Kamfinsa
Date of Birth: 23rd March,1944
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form IV,Diploma in Accounting
Profession: Accountant

Zitha Gladys Nyirongo
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Bwacha
Date of Birth: 27th September,1957
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Marketing, Certificate in Church Leadership
Profession: Minister/Clergy

Kabinga Pande – Minister of Foreign Affairs
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Kasempa
Date of Birth: 5th March 1952
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Cambridge ‘O’ Levels, Higher Level Cert.in PR Management, Diploma in Journalism,Diploma in Business English, MBA
Profession: Public Relations Expert/Journalist

Josephine Chilufya Mumbi Phiri
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Munali
Date of Birth: 15th November,1969
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V,Certificate in Pre-School Teaching,Cabin Attendant
Profession: Airhostess

David Phiri
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Mkaika
Date of Birth: 13th June,1960
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V,,BA.Economics
Profession: Economist

Fashion Phiri – Deputy Minister Foreign Affairs
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Kapoche
Date of Birth: 26th April,1950
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, BA(Education) UNZA,Med.(MC Gill,Canada),PhD (University of London)
Profession: Educationist, Researcher, Curriculum Developer, Planner& Developer, Geographer and Historian

Dr Lwipa Felix Puma – Deputy Minister Commerce
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Lufwanyama
Date of Birth: 9th September,1968
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12,Bsc(HB), MBCHB,Master of Public Health
Profession: Medical Doctor

Sarah Sayifwanda – Minister of Gender
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Zambezi East
Date of Birth: 16th June,1963
Marital Status: Single
Educational Qualifications:Form V,Diploma(Special Education),BA (Special Education)
Profession: Teacher

Dr Guy Scott
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Lusaka Central
Date of Birth: 1st June,1944
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications:’O’ Levels and A Levels,BA(Economics),PhD (Cognitive Science)
Profession: Economist

Ackson Sejani
Political Party: UPND
Constituency: Mapatizya
Date of Birth: 15th October,1957
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications:Form V,Diploma Agriculture,BA( Public Administration)
Profession: Administrator

Jonas Shakafuswa
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Katuba
Date of Birth: 18th February,1963
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: ‘O’Levels,BA(Economics)
Profession: Economist

Charles Jeremiah Shawa – Lusaka Province Minister
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Feira
Date of Birth: 29th August,1960
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12,Cert.SED,Diploma in Music Education,Diploma PMM, IDEPA
Profession: Teacher/Administrator/Musician

Lt Gen Ronald Shikapwasha
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Keembe
Date of Birth: 25th December,1947
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Airforce/Defence, Diploma in Theology, MSc.(Military Studies)
Profession: Pilot, Minister of Religion

Paul Sichamba
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Isoka West
Date of Birth: 26th June,1967
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade12,Certificate in Management Studies
Profession: Manager

Gaston Fred Sichilima - Deputy Minister Vice-President’s Office
Political Party: MMD
Constituency:Mbala
Date of Birth: 28thDecember,1959
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Technician Training in Heavy Earth Moving Equipment, Higher National Diploma(Hydro Pneumatics and Electronics)
Profession: Eng.Mech

Brian Sikazwe
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Chimbamilonga
Date of Birth: 8th June 1969
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, Certificate in Mechanical Engineering,Diploma in Human Resources
Profession: Technician

Sakwiba Sikota, SC
Political Party: ULP
Constituency: Livingstone Central
Date of Birth: 3rd January 1960
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Post Graduate Dip. International Law & Diplomacy UNZA, LPQE Certificate, BSc.(Science Law and Politics), Advocate of the High Court for Zambia
Profession: Lawyer

Clever M Silavwe
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Nakonde
Date of Birth: 14th October,1961
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form IV, Certificate in Marketing & Accountancy
Profession: Businessman

Dora Siliya – Minister of Education
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Petauke Central
Date of Birth: 8th October,1970
Marital Status: Single
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12, BA(Mass Communication), MA(Development Economics)
Profession: Development Economist

Anson Simama
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Kalulushi
Date of Birth: 15th June,1959
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Post Graduate Diploma-Production Management
Profession: Forester

Kapembwa Simbao Minister of Health
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Senga Hill
Date of Birth: 10th November,1959
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: ‘O’Levels,BSc Engineering( Eletronics,Electrical)
Profession: Engineer

Wlybur Chisiya Simuusa
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Nchanga
Date of Birth: 9th September,1962
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V,Bsc (Engineering) UNZA,Msc (Engineering)USA, MA (Business Administration) (MBA)
Profession: Mining Specialist/Business Administrator

Edgar Singombe
Political Party: Independent
Constituency: Dundumwezi
Date of Birth: 4th April 1970
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12,Diploma in Law
Profession: Immigration Officer

Faustina Bwalya Sinyangwe
Political Party:PF
Constituency: Matero
Date of Birth: 3rd July 1949
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Diploma in Management,Diploma in Education Technology,Diploma in Teacher Education
Profession: Educationist/Broadcaster

Clement Wainyae Sinyinda
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Senanga
Date of Birth:2nd February1952
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Education
Profession: Teacher

Douglas Munsaka Syakalima
Political Party: UPND
Constituency:Siavonga
Date of Birth: 25th March,1967
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12,BA. Ed (Psychology), Msc (Applied Psychology)
Profession: Lecturer of Applied Behavioural Sciences

Richard Tonde Taima – Deputy Minister Education
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Solwezi East
Date of Birth: 7th January,1971
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: GCE’O’ Level, ACCA II,ATD,CIA, Applied Accounting Accountancy
Profession: Accountant

Raisi Forrie Tembo
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Nyimba
Date of Birth: 25th April,1968
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Grade 12,Certificate in Marketing Management, Leadership Development Certificate, Contract Management Certificate
Profession: Marketing Executive

Vera Tembo – Deputy Minister Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources
Political Party: MMD
Constituency: Kasenengwa
Date of Birth:25th July,1953
Marital Status: Divorced
Educational Qualifications: Form III, Diploma in Public Speaking
Profession: Politician

Joseph Kasiti Zulu
Political Party: PF
Constituency: Bwana Mkubwa
Date of Birth: 7th April,1952
Marital Status: Married
Educational Qualifications: Form V, Diploma in Civil Engineering, Diploma (Project Management), MBA (Marketing)
Profession: Civil Engineer